本·琼森

编辑 锁定 讨论
本·琼森(Ben Jonson,约1572年6月11日-1637年8月6日),英格兰pc蛋蛋最快开奖结果记录文艺复兴剧作家、诗人和演员。他的作品以讽刺剧见长,《福尔蓬奈》(Volpone)和《炼金士》(The Alchemist)为其代表作,他的抒情诗也很出名。 英国诗人,剧作家,评论家 。1572年6月11日生于伦敦。主要诗集有《格言诗》、《森林集》、《灌木集》等曾就学于古代史学者坎姆登,并在其资助下到威斯敏斯特学校读书,获得关于希腊、罗马文学的丰富知识。后又博览群书,成为当时学识最渊博的剧作家之一。
中文名
本·琼森
外文名
Ben Jonson
国    籍
英格兰
出生地
伦敦威敏斯特
出生日期
1572
逝世日期
1637
代表作品
《福尔蓬奈》《人人高兴》

本·琼森生平

编辑
本·琼森莎士比亚pc蛋蛋最快开奖结果记录同时创作并持续到莎士比亚死后,戏剧生涯三十余年。他一生经历坎坷,曾经随继父学习泥瓦手艺,后来从军参加对西班牙人的战争。因讥讽时政、争斗杀人曾多次入狱。pc蛋蛋最快开奖结果记录他也是由演员转向戏剧创作的。在1616 年莎士比亚逝世那年,他把自己的剧本结集出版。当时剧本都作演出本用,本·琼森把它们作为独立的文学作品出版,尽管当时有人讥评,但在文学史上是有意义的事件。他受过古希腊、罗马文化的影响,倾心拉丁诗篇,诗作有收敛整饬的古典美。他的非戏剧的诗歌有许多佳作,像“用你的双眸给我祝酒吧”是抒情的名诗。他的散文作品中有关文艺批评pc蛋蛋最快开奖结果记录的意见,对新古典主义的形成有很大影响。本·琼生在当时文坛上受到推崇,成为作家中的领袖人物,围绕着他活动的文学圈被称为“本·琼森派”。

本·琼森个人作品

编辑
琼森写了18部戏剧,除两部罗马历史悲剧《西亚努斯的覆灭》和《卡塔林的阴谋》之外,大都是社会讽刺喜剧。其剧作遵循古典主义原则,并有强烈的道德倾向。剧中对当时社会恶劣风习的尖锐批评曾使他两次被捕入狱。一次是因与T·纳什合写讽刺时事、现已佚失的《狗岛》,此剧的演出还导致了伦敦剧场的暂时关闭 ; 另一次是因与 C· 马斯顿合写《向东方去》 ,剧中批评了詹姆斯一世的政治 。pc蛋蛋最快开奖结果记录1598年的《人人高兴》 和1599 年的 《人人扫兴》 是琼森根据气质论( 中世纪所谓4种不同气质产生不同性格的生理学学说 )创作的癖性喜剧。后者因戏拟马斯顿的风格导致了剧场之战,其间有几位戏剧家争以写戏相互攻讦,琼森为此又写了《辛西娅的狂欢》和《冒牌诗人》。
琼森最成功的喜剧有《狐狸》、《炼金术士》和《巴托罗缪市集》。
Benjamin Jonson was born 1571 as the posthumous son of a Protestant minister. His mother then moved him to Westminster, where she married a bricklayer. He attended a free parish school as a boy, and thanks to the sponsorship of the headmaster, was able to attend Westminster Grammar School. Unfortunately, Ben lost his scholarship and was forced to take up bricklaying alongside his stepfather. This occupation did not appeal to him, and he left for military duty in Flanders and did not return to England until 1592. He married in 1594, and joined a touring acting company in 1597. Ben Jonson and another playwright then wrote a play called "Isle of Dogs" which was immediately banned on charges of sedition, and he and his friends found themselves in Fleet Prison. He was released after a few months and managed to restart his acting career. In December of 1598 he fought a duel with another actor named Gabriel Spencer; fortunately for Ben, he won, but unfortunately, he was imprisoned on charges of murder and given the death sentence. He managed to escape the gallows and returned to playwriting. He set out on foot in 1618 to visit Scotland and on his return began lecturing on rhetoric at colleges. He died in 1637 and was buried in Westminster Abbey; his epitaph reads: "Oh Rare Ben Jonson!"
风格详见诗Song to Celia:本诗为英国剧作家、诗人本·琼生(Ben Jonson,1572—1637)所作。他的诗的特点在于明快,文字干净,已有后来古典主义诗歌的特点。pc蛋蛋最快开奖结果记录To Celia 是一首很有名的抒情诗,赞美的是精神爱(Platonic love),曾谱成音乐。pc蛋蛋最快开奖结果记录Celia女子名。
Song to Celia
Drink to me only with thine eyes2,
And I will pledge3 with mine;
Or leave a kiss but in the cup4
And I'll not look for wine.
The thirst that from the soul doth5 rise
Doth ask a drink divine6;
But might I of Jove's nectar sup7,
I would not change for thine.
I sent thee8 late9 a rosy wreath,
Not so much honouring10 thee
As giving it a hope that there
It could not wither'd be11;
But thou thereon didst only breathe12
And sent'st it back to me;
Since when13 it grows,and smells,I swear,
Not of itself but thee14!

本·琼森代表作NOTES

编辑
1.本诗为英国剧作家、诗人本·琼生(Ben Jonson,1572—1637)所作。他的诗的特点在于明快,
本·琼森 本·琼森
pc蛋蛋最快开奖结果记录文字干净,已有后来古典主义诗歌的特点。To Celia 是一首很有名的抒情诗,赞美的是精神爱(Platonic love),曾谱成音乐。Celia女子名。
2.Drink to me only with thine eyes 只需用你的眼睛为我祝酒
thine thy,你的[古]
3.pledge drink a toast,祝酒
4.leave a kiss but in the cup=leave a kiss only in the cup 以吻代酒
5.doth doos,由于音节需要而用的垫词,非加强语气。
6.drink divine divine drink,词序颠倒是为了诗韵的需要。
7.But might I of Jove's nectar sup=if I might sup some of Jove's nectar.
might I= if I might
Jove Jupiter,朱庇特(罗马神话中的主神)
8.thee[古] thoy 的宾格,你、汝
9.late(此处) lately
10.honouring in order to honour
11.As giving it a hope that there it could not wither'd be 这一句的正常语序应是:As giving it a hope that there it could not be wither'd.
there with you,即戴在你头上
wither'd be be wither'd,顺序颠倒为押韵的需要。that there it could not wither'd be是hope的同位语,意为:希望戴在你的头上永不枯萎。
12.But thou thereon didt only breather=But if you merely breathe on it.
didst brcathe 现在虚拟式(下行的 sen'st同。)
13.since when then
14.Not of itself but thee!
此句实际与上文的grows和smells连用。
of itself=by itself
but thee=but of thee=on account of you 整个意思为:花环由于你而生长,由于你而散发出芬芳。
给西丽雅
你就只用你的眼睛来给我干杯,
我就用我的眼睛来相酬;
或者就留下一个亲吻在杯边上
我就不会向杯里找酒。
从灵魂深处张开起来的渴嘴
着实想喝到美妙的一口;
可是哪怕由我尝天帝的琼浆,
要我换也不甘把你的放手。
我新近给你送上了一束玫魂花,
与其说诚心拿来孝敬你
不如说让它们有希望得到熏陶,
不会得枯搞以至于委地;
可是你只在花上呼吸了一下,
把它们送回到我的手里;
从此它们就开得叫我闻得到
(不是它们自己而是)你。
卞之琳译)

本·琼森代表作 狐狸

编辑
故事简介: 福尔蓬奈(Volpone)是一个威尼斯的绅士。他假装重病卧床去欺骗贪求他财产的沃尔特(Voltore),科尔巴林(Corbaccio)和科维诺(Corvino)。他们轮流去到福尔蓬奈的家里,给他带来昂贵的礼物,希望能成为这无儿无女的绅士的财产继承人
律师沃尔特献给福尔蓬奈送了一个古老的餐具。
老绅士科尔巴林带着鸦片剂来探望福尔蓬奈,他怕福尔蓬奈立沃尔特我继承人,于是 又交出一代印度金币。福尔蓬奈的仆人莫斯卡(Mosca)哄骗科尔巴林,说他应该先立福尔蓬奈为自己的遗产继承人,这样就可确保他相应地成为福尔蓬奈的遗产继承人;况且福尔蓬奈都快死了。他一死遗产就会全部落入科尔巴林的口袋里。科尔巴林闻言,解除了自己儿子布纳瑞尔(Bonario)的继承人身份而改立福尔蓬奈。
商人科维诺带着东方珍珠来探望装病的福尔蓬奈,希望能博得他的欢心。莫斯卡告诉他,他必须把漂亮的妻子,赛利亚(Celia)献给福尔蓬奈,才能得到他的遗产。在巨大的利益驱使下,科维诺让妻子去和福尔蓬奈H。
在科维诺把妻子带到前,科尔巴林的儿子布纳瑞尔得知父亲要解除自己的财产继承权,去到福尔蓬奈家理论。莫斯卡带他的旁边的房间先等着。当科维诺将妻子赛利亚骗到福尔蓬奈的房间时,房门刚刚关上,在床上装病的福尔蓬奈一跃而起,向赛利亚逼近……赛利亚没有顺从他。她苦苦哀求,请他讲讲天地良心,坚决表示宁死不从。但肉在前,福尔蓬奈岂会放手,扑上去就要强她。这时,善良的小伙子布纳瑞尔冲出来英雄救美,阻止了福尔蓬奈,并痛斥他的无耻下流。
一群人被带上法庭。在第一次审讯中,作为律师的沃尔特明知布纳瑞尔和赛利亚是无罪的,却为了博得福尔蓬奈的欢心,给他和莫斯卡出坏主意,和他们一同诬告布纳瑞尔和赛利亚,致使法庭认定善良的布纳瑞尔和赛利亚是有罪的。
后来福尔蓬奈乔装打扮成政府官员,说自己已经死了,所有的财产都留给仆人莫斯卡。柯尔特、科尔巴林和科维诺被彻底激怒。全部人再次返回法庭。无视福尔蓬奈的恳求,莫斯卡拒绝放弃自己新的有钱人的身份。于是福尔蓬奈决定把所有的事情和骗局都翻出来,踢莫斯卡下台。
至此,所有贪婪的人们都受到应有的惩罚。
本·琼森的《福尔蓬奈》(又名《狐狸》)是很有名的复制节录如下作为经典教材
VOLPONE. Good morning to the day; and next, my gold!
福尔蓬奈:早晨好!其次,我的黄金:
Open the shrine, that I may see my saint.
(Mosca opens the curtain that hides much treasure)
[莫斯卡拉开窗帘,发现一大堆黄金、金银餐具、宝石等等。]
Hail the world's soul, and mine! more glad than is
万岁!世纪的灵魂,我的灵魂!
The teeming earth to see the longed-for sun
比令人渴望的遍地阳光更多的黄金。
Peep through the horns of the celestial ram,
穿过天上的公羊角一瞥,
Am I, to view thy splendour darkening his;
你的光彩让它黯然失色,
That lying here, amongst my other hoardes,
它放在我的储藏的最中间。
Show'st like a flame by night, or like the day
象黑夜中的火焰闪耀,
Struck out by chaos, when all darkness fled
象白昼中的混沌廓清,那时所有的黑暗消散,
Unto the centre. O thou son of Sol,
光明***中央。啊,你是太阳神的儿子,
But brighter than thy father, let me kiss,
你比太阳更明亮,
With adoration, thee, and every relic
我崇敬地吻你和在这神圣的房间
Of sacred treasure in this blessed room.
中的每一个神圣财宝的遗物。
Well did wise poets by thy glorious name
让诗人说得好,你的光荣的名字,
Title that age which they would have the best;
会有时代最好的头衔。
Thou being the best of things, and far transcending
你是最好的东西,
All style of joy, in children, parents, friends,
远胜于在孩子、爸妈、同事
Or any other waking dream on earth.
和地球上清醒的众人中的各种类型的欢乐。
Thy looks when they to Venus did ascribe,
你看,当她们属意于维纳斯的时候,
They should have given her twenty thousand Cupids,
她们会献上无数的爱之箭。
Such are thy beauties and our loves! Dear saint,
可爱的天使---财富,我们的爱,你是如此美丽!
Riches, the dumb god, that givest all men tongues,
无声的上帝,赋予所有人以语言。
That canst do nought, and yet mak'st men do all things;
你能使大家从无到有,
The price of soul; even hell, with thee to boot,
你能给灵魂、甚至给地狱定价,
Is made worth heaven. Thou art virtue, fame,
你还能制造天堂的价值。你根本就是美德、名望、
Honour and all things else. Who can get thee,
荣誉和所有的东西。谁能得到你,
He shall be noble, valiant, honest, wise--
他根本就是高贵的、勇敢的、诚实的和聪明的人!(第一幕第一场 在福尔蓬奈家的一个房间)
Come, my Celia, let us prove,
While we can, the sports of love;
Time will not be ours forever,
He at length our good will sever;
Spend not then his gifts in vain.
Suns that set may rise again;
But if once we lose this light,
'Tis with us perpetual night.
Why should we defer our joys?
Fame and rumour are but toys.
Cannot we delude the eyes
Of a few poor household spies?
Or his easier ears beguile,
Thus removed by our wile? '
Tis no sin love's fruits to steal;
But the sweet theft to reveal,
To be taken, to be seen,
Those have crimes accounted been.
词条标签:
文学家 人物